Construction Of Photo Cameras.

Photo camera – is a device that performs the formation and subsequent fixation of the still image.

Principle of operation.

The transformation of luminous flux.

The luminous flux from the subject is transformed by a shooting lens into a real image; it is regulated according to intensity (lens aperture) and exposure time (shutter speed); it is balanced by the color filters.

Fixation of luminous flux.

In the film camera memorization of the image is on the photographic material (film, photographic plates, etc.), which after shooting is processed chemically or physically.

In the digital camera the image is perceived by an electronic sensor – the matrix; the signal obtained from the sensor has been digitized, memorization is done in the buffer memory and then stored on some media, usually removable (in modern cameras flash memory is mostly used). In the simplest or specialized cameras a digital image can be immediately transmitted to the computer.

Design of the camera.

Any camera has:

Lens with image projection on the sensor element;

Gate (its role can be performed by the lens cover, in simple digital cameras it can be absent);

Housing. It is used to attach the camera mechanisms. It protects the sensitive material from unauthorized light exposure in the process of shooting. Together with the rim of the lens or objective board it can be used to focus adjustment;

Cassette with a photosensitive material, or matrix with associated equipment.

All other elements of the camera do not have a direct impact on the technical quality of the image and can be present or absent in the structure. They determine the ease and speed of the camera, ensure an accurate framing (Viewfinder), help the photographer in identifying shooting parameters (exposure meter, automatic focus and exposure metering), make it simple to take photos in hard conditions (flash, image stabilizer, etc.).

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