Newman was born in Shaker Heights, Ohio (a suburb of Cleveland), the son of Theresa (ne Fetzer or Fetsko; Slovak: Terzia Feckov) and Arthur Samuel Newman, who ran a profitable sporting goods store. Newman’s father was Jewish, the son of immigrants from Poland and Hungary; Newman’s mother, who practiced Christian Science, was born to a Slovak Roman Catholic family at Ptiie (formerly Pticsie) in the former Austriaungary (now in Slovakia). Newman had no religion as an adult, but described himself as “a Jew”, stating that “it’s more of a challenge”. Newman’s mother worked in his father’s store, while raising Paul and his brother, Arthur, who later became a producer and production manager.
Newman showed an early interest in the theater, which his mother encouraged. At the age of seven, he made his acting debut, playing the court jester in a school production of Robin Hood. Graduating from Shaker Heights High School in 1943, he briefly attended Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, where he was initiated into the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity.
Newman served in the United States Navy in World War II in the Pacific theater. Newman enrolled in the Navy V-12 program at Ohio University, hoping to be accepted for pilot training, but was dropped when it was learned he was color blind. He was sent instead to boot camp and then received further training as a radioman and gunner. Qualifying as a rear-seat radioman and gunner in torpedo bombers, in 1944, Aviation Radioman Third Class Newman was sent to Barber’s Point, Hawaii. He was subsequently assigned to Pacific-based replacement torpedo squadrons (VT-98, VT-99, and VT-100). These torpedo squadrons were responsible primarily for training replacement pilots and combat air crewmen, placing particular importance on carrier landings.
He later flew from aircraft carriers as a turret gunner in an Avenger torpedo bomber. As a radioman-gunner, he served aboard the USS Bunker Hill during the Battle of Okinawa in the spring of 1945. He was ordered to the ship with a draft of replacements shortly before the Okinawa campaign, but by a fluke of war, was held back because his pilot had an ear infection. The rest of his detail died.
After the war, he completed his degree at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, graduating in 1949. Newman later studied Drama at Yale University, graduating in 1954, and later studying under Lee Strasberg at the Actors’ Studio in New York City.
Oscar Levant wrote that Newman initially was hesitant to leave New York for Hollywood: “Too close to the cake,” he reported him saying, “Also, no place to study.”
Newman made his Broadway theater debut in the original production of William Inge’s Picnic with Kim Stanley. He later appeared in the original Broadway productions of The Desperate Hours and Sweet Bird of Youth with Geraldine Page. He would later star in the film version of Sweet Bird of Youth, which also starred Page.
His first movie for Hollywood was The Silver Chalice (1954), followed by acclaimed roles in Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), as boxer Rocky Graziano; Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), opposite Elizabeth Taylor; and The Young Philadelphians (1959), with Barbara Rush and Robert Vaughn. But, predating all of these above was a small but notable part in an August 8, 1952 episode of the science fiction TV series Tales of Tomorrow entitled “Ice from Space”, in which he played Sergeant Wilson, his first credited TV or film appearance.
In February 1954, Newman appeared in a screen test with James Dean, directed by Gjon Mili, for East of Eden (1955). Newman was testing for the role of Aron Trask, Dean for the role of Aron’s fraternal twin brother Cal. Dean won his part, but Newman lost out to Richard Davalos. The same year, Newman co-starred with Eva Marie Saint and Frank Sinatra in a live
Today’s California State University system is the direct descendant of the California State Normal School (now San Jose State University), a normal school established by the California Legislature on May 2, 1862. The California State Normal School was itself derived from the City of San Francisco’s Minns Evening Normal School (founded in 1857) a normal school legislature dropped the word “California” from the name of the San Jose and Los Angeles schools, renaming them “State Normal Schools.” Later Chico (1887), San Diego (1897), and other schools became part of the State Normal School system. In 1919, the State Normal School at Los Angeles became the Southern Branch of the University of California (now the University of California, Los Angeles). In 1921, the State Normal Schools became the State Teachers Colleges. By this time most of the campuses started to become identified by their city names plus the word “state” (e.g., “San Jose State,” “San Diego State,” “San Francisco State”).
In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges and were administered by the California State Department of Education in Sacramento. The Donahoe Higher Education Act of 1960 gave the system greater autonomy from the State of California.
The postwar period brought a fantastic expansion in the number of colleges in the system. Campuses in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Long Beach were added between 1947 and 1949. Then seven more were authorized to be built between 1957 and 1960. Six more campuses joined the system after the establishment of the Donohoe Higher Education Act in 1960 bringing the total number to 23.
In 1972 the system became The California State University and Colleges, and all of the campuses were renamed with the words “California State University” in their names. Former San Diego State University student body president Calvin Robinson wrote the bill, signed into law by Ronald Reagan, that allowed every California State University the option to revert the schools back to their pre-1972 names: San Jose State, San Diego State, San Francisco State, etc. In 1982, the CSU system dropped the word “colleges” from its name.
Today the campuses of the CSU include comprehensive and polytechnic universities and the only Maritime Academy in the western United States that receives aid from the federal Maritime Administration.
Office of the Chancellor in Long Beach
Responsibility for the California State University is vested in the 25 member Board of Trustees, whose members are appointed by the Governor of the State of California. There are 5 ex officio Trustees; the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the CSU Chancellor. There are 4 special Trustees. The CSU Statewide Alumni Council appoints an Alumni Trustee. The Governor appoints a Faculty Trustee from nominees proposed by the Statewide Academic Senate. The Governor appoints two Student Trustees from nominees proposed by the California State Student Association. The Alumni and Faculty Trustees serve for two years. The Student Trustees serve staggered two-year terms. The sixteen remaining Trustees are appointed by the Governor, confirmed by the State Senate, and serve for eight years. The Trustees appoint the Chancellor, who is the chief executive officer of the system, and the Presidents, who are the chief executive officers of their respective campuses.
Membership of the Board of Trustees: Ex Officio trustees
Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor of California
Vacant, Lieutenant Governor (formerly John Garamendi; Abel Maldonado is the Lt. Gov. nominee)
Karen Bass, Speaker of the Assembly
Jack O’Connell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Charles B. Reed, CSU Chancellor
Jeffrey L. Bleich
Herbert L. Carter
Carol R. Chandler
Debra S. Farar
George G. Gowgani
Raymond Holdsworth, Jr.
Linda A. Lang
Craig R. Smith
Russel D. Statham
The Academic Senate of the California State University, made up of elected representatives of the faculty from each campus, recommends academic policy to the Board of Trustees through the Chancellor.
Chancellors of the CSU
Buell Gallagher (1961-1962)
Glenn S. Dumke (1962-1982)
W. Ann Reynolds (1982-1990)
Ellis E. McCune [Acting] (1990-1991)
Barry Munitz (1991-1998)
Charles B. Reed (1998-current)
The California State University’s permanent, collective endowment has grown to 4 million U.S. dollars as of the close of the 2006-2007 academic year. In addition, each of the 23 campuses of the CSU raise their own funds through donations and other external funding, and each campus controls its own separate endowment funds not counted in the above endowment amount.
Link to CSU Endowment & Fundraising webpage
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo
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Since its foundation, Israel has been a sort of laboratory for strategic surprises. It went, and still goes, through frequent security crises and every decade a war or serious military accident breaks out. The question of intelligence and military surprises and their consequences is an acute prime topic of utmost importance to Israeli national security.
In this article I intend to present an updated portrayal of the Fundamental Surprise theory, which I developed in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War (1973) and published in my book
Main article: History of Wrigley Field
The park was built in six weeks in 1914 at a cost of about 0,000 (.3 million in 2008 dollars) by the Chicago lunchroom magnate “Lucky Charlie” Weeghman, who owned the Federal League Dolphins. (The club signed a fifty-five-year lease to use the park for app ,000 per year.) It was designed by the architect Zachary Taylor Davis (who four years earlier had designed Comiskey Park for the Chicago White Sox), incorporating the new “fireproof” building codes recently enacted by the city. According to some sources, when it opened for the 1914 Federal League season, Weeghman Park had a seating capacity of 14,000. According to another source, the original seating capacity was 20,000.
In late 1915 the Federal League folded. The resourceful Weeghman formed a syndicate including the chewing gum manufacturer William Wrigley Jr. to buy the Chicago Cubs from Charles P. Taft for about 0,000. Weeghman immediately went the Cubs from the dilapidated West Side Grounds to his two-year-ancient park. In 1918 Wrigley bought the controlling interest in the club. In February 1926, he renamed the park “Wrigley Field.”
In 1927 an upper deck was added, and in 1937, Bill Veeck, the son of the club president, planted ivy vines against the outfield walls.
Wrigley Field was a hold-out against night games, not installing lights until 1988 after baseball officials refused to allow the Cubs to play any post-season games without lights. Night games are still limited in number by agreement with the city council. Capacity is set at 44,250.
Wrigley Field follows the jewel box design of ballparks that was well loved in the early part of the 20th century. The two recessed wall areas, or “wells,” located both in left, and right field, give those areas a small more length than if the wall were to follow the contour from center field, it is also in those wells, when cross winds are blowing, that balls have a habit of bouncing in all sorts of fascinating directions, there is also a long net running the entire length of the outfield wall, about two foot from the top, the primary use is to keep fans from falling out of the bleacher area, and onto the field of play, which is about seven, to ten feet below the top of the wall. Called “The basket,” by players, and fans alike, the rules of the field state that any ball landing within the netting is ruled a home run, making the distance to hit a home run in Wrigley Field really shorter than the location of the outfield wall.
Ivy-covered outfield walls
Wrigley Field is known for its distinct ivy-covered outfield walls.
The ballpark is well-known for its outfield walls which are covered by ivy. In the first weeks of the baseball season, the ivy has not leafed out, and all that is visible are the vines on which it grows. But, as the baseball season progresses further into spring, the ivy grows thick and green, disguising the hard brick surface of the outfield wall. Many a ball has been lost in the ivy when hit towards the outfield fences. An outfielder will signal that a ball is lost, by raising his hands. When this occurs, the umpires will call time and rule the play a ground-rule double. Also, there have been occasions of fielders being injured when slamming into the wall after a glide ball. The ivy that covers the outfield wall is Boston Ivy, which can endure the harsh Chicago winters better than its English cousin. The ivy was planted in 1937 by the Cubs General Manager Bill Veeck, to try and add some padding to the then groundbreaking new brick outfield wall.
See also: Wrigley Roof
The rooftops seats across the street offer views similar to those from the ballpark’s own seats.
Ancient-time ballparks were often surrounded by buildings that afforded a “freebie” look at the game for enterprising souls. In most venues, the clubs took steps to either extend the stands around, or to build spite fences to block the view. Perhaps the most notorious of these was the one at Shibe Park in Philadelphia, which caused a rift between the residents and the team that never healed. The Cubs themselves had built a high fence along the outfield at West Side Park, to hide the field from flats whose back porches were right next to the outer fence of the ballpark.
But at Wrigley it was different. The flat rooftops of the apartment buildings across Waveland and Sheffield, which pre-date the ballpark, were often populated with a reasonable number of fans having cookouts while enjoying the game for free. The Cubs tolerated it quietly until the 1990s, when some owners of those apartments started building small bleacher sections, and charging people to watch the games. That was a whole different ball game, and the Cubs management became very vocal in expressing their displeasure, threatening legal action. In 2003 they went so far as to line the screens that top the outer walls with opaque strips, to block the best exterior sight lines. That was the closest thing to a spite fence that Wrigley had seen. Therefore the bleachers are sometimes called “The Spiteless Fence” as well as “The Ivy Wall”.
View from a rooftop across Waveland Avenue
This led to meetings and to a peaceful settlement among the various parties. The building owners agreed to share a part of their proceeds with the Cubs, and the Cubs obtained permission from the city to expand the ballpark’s own bleachers out over the sidewalks and do some additional construction on the open area of the property to the west, bordered by Clark and Waveland, and to close the remnant of Seminary Avenue that also existed on the property. The rooftop seats are now effectively part of the ballpark’s seating area, although they are not included in the seating capacity figure.
Some of the rooftops have become legendary in their own right. The Lakeview Baseball Club, which sits across Sheffield Avenue (right-field) from the stadium displays a sign that reads, “Eamus Catuli!” (roughly Latin for “Let’s Go Cubs!”atuli translating to “whelps”, the nearest Latin equivalent), flanked by a counter indicating the Cubs’ long legacy of futility. The counter is labeled “AC,” for “Anno Catuli,” or “In the Year of the Cubs.” The first two digits indicate the number of years since the Cubs’ last division championship as of the end of the previous season (2008), the next two digits indicate the number of years since the Cubs’ last trip to the World Series (1945), and the last three digits indicate the number of years since their last World Series win (1908).
Today, Wrigley rooftops have become a unique alternative venue to watch baseball games. Many rooftop venues feature bleachers, open bar, specialty food items, and a unique game-day atmosphere, although the quality of the view can vary depending on the specific rooftop location.
Unusual wind patterns
The main scoreboard at Wrigley Field. This photo was taken on the August 27, 2005 Cubs-Marlins game. Note the video board below the scoreboard, as it was added in 2004.
In April and May the wind often comes off Lake Michigan (less than a mile to the east), which means a northeast wind “blowing in” to knock down potential home runs and turn them into outs. In the summer, but, or on any warm and breezy day, the wind often comes from the south and the southwest, which means the wind is “blowing out” and has the potential to turn normally harmless glide balls into home runs. A third variety is the cross-wind, which typically runs from the left field corner to the right field corner and causes all sorts of fascinating havoc. Depending on the direction of the wind, Wrigley can either be one of the friendliest parks in the major leagues for pitchers or among the worst. This makes Wrigley one of the most unpredictable parks in the Major Leagues.
Many Cubs fans check their nearest flag before heading to the park on game days for an indication of what the game might be like; this is less of a factor for night games, but, because the wind does not blow as hard after the sun goes down.
With the wind blowing in, pitchers can dominate, and no-hitters have been tossed from time to time, though none recently; the last two occurred near the beginning and the end of the 1972 season, by Burt Hooton and Milt Pappas respectively. In the seventh inning of Ken Holtzman’s first no-hitter, on August 19, 1969, Hank Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hammered one that looked like it was headed for Waveland, but the wind caught it just enough for left fielder Billy Williams to leap up and snare it in “the well”.
With the wind blowing out, some right tape-measure home runs have been hit by well-muscled batters. Sammy Sosa and Dave “Kong” Kingman broke windows in the apartment buildings across Waveland Ave. several times. Glenallen Hill place one on a rooftop. Batters have occasionally slugged it into, or to the side of, the first row or two of the “upper deck” of the center field bleachers. Sosa hit the roof of the center field camera booth on the glide during the NLCS against the Florida Marlins, some 450 feet away.
But the longest blast was probably hit by Dave Kingman on a very windy day in 1976 while with the Mets. According to local legend, that day, Kingman launched a bomb that landed on the third porch roof on the east (center field) side of Kenmore Avenue, some 550 feet away.
No batter has ever hit the center field scoreboard, but it has been hit by a different kind of ball: a golf ball, hit by Sam Snead, using a two iron.
No matter the weather, many fans congregate during batting practice and games on Waveland Avenue, behind left field, and Sheffield Avenue, behind right field, for a chance to catch a home run ball.
Hand turned scoreboard
Just like Fenway Park, Wrigley still boasts a hand turned scoreboard. But, unlike the fabled home of the Red Sox, the scoreboard at Wrigley is mounted above the center field bleachers, rather than at ground level, making it harder to hit it. The scoreboard was installed in 1937, when Bill Veeck installed the new brick outfield wall, and the bleacher stands, the scoreboard has remained in place ever since, and has only been modified once, in 1988, when the installation of lights made it necessary to add a set of light stands facing onto the scoreboard. The scoreboard is still hand turned, with scores coming into the scoreboard through a ticker tape machine (today, a computer is used to show scores to the number turners), a number turner watches the score changes closely, and reflects this by walking the length of the interior of the scoreboard, and manually replacing the numbers to reflect the new score for a certain game. It is known that during the existence of the current Wrigley Field scoreboard, several players have come close, but none have ever hit it. The scoreboard is made out of sheet steel, and is welded into place, then painted forest green, to reflect the now growing foliage below. The numbers that are placed into the inning windows are steel, painted forest green, and numbered with white numerals, the box for the game playing at Wrigley, but, for the inning, until the end of that inning, the current runs scored are reflected by yellow numerals. The clock, which sits at the top center of the scoreboard, has never lost time in its 73 year existence. The doors to enter the scoreboard are located at both ends, and on the reverse of the scoreboard, is a blue pennant, with the words “Chicago Cubs”, in white, the words are also placed with red neon lights, allowing the pennant to be seen at night.
Main entry marquee
Directly over the main entrance to the stadium stands the most familiar icon of the exterior of the ballpark, a large red, art deco style marquee, painted in white letters to read “Welcome to Wrigley Field, Home of Chicago Cubs”. The marquee has been in place since the stadium changed its name in the mid 1920’s, and was first placed with announcements on upcoming games using an ancient-fashioned theater marquee design, with letters being replaced with a suction cup on a long pole. In the 1980’s, the original theater marquee setup was removed from the sign, and an electronic scrolling announcement board was added, effectively splitting the original marquee into two pieces. The marquee utilizes red neon lights at night, showing the familiar “Welcome to Wrigley Field” in red, as the rest of the sign is in darkness. It is the most photographed part of the stadium exterior.
Main article: List of events at Wrigley Field
Main article: Chicago Cubs franchise history
Wrigley Field has served as the home baseball park for Major League Baseball’s Chicago Cubs franchise since 1916.
Wrigley Field football configuration with extra bleacher seats in right field
The Chicago Bears of the National Football League played at Wrigley Field from 1921 to 1970 before relocating to Soldier Field. The team had transferred from Decatur, and retained the name “Staleys” for the 1921 season. They renamed themselves the “Bears” in order to identify with the baseball team, a common practice in the NFL in those days. Wrigley Field once held the record for the most NFL games played in a single stadium with 365 regular season NFL games, but this record was surpassed in September 2003 by Giants Stadium in New Jersey, thanks to its dual-occupancy by the New York Giants and New York Jets.The game played between the Jets and Miami Dolphins on September 14, 2003 was the 366th regular season NFL game at Giants Stadium breaking Wrigley’s regular season record. The 50 seasons the Bears spent at Wrigley Field had been an NFL record until 2006 when Lambeau Field duplicated this feat by hosting the Packers for the 50th season, and broke it in 2007.
Initially the Bears worked with the stands that were there. Eventually they bought a large, portable bleacher section that spanned the right and center field areas and covered most of the existing bleacher seating and part of the right field corner seating. This “East Stand” raised Wrigley’s football capacity to about 46,000, or a net gain of perhaps 9,000 seats over normal capacity. After the Bears left, this structure would live on for several years as the “North Stand” at Soldier Field, until it was replaced by permanent seating.
The football field ran north-to-south, i.e. from left field to the foul side of first base. The remodeling of the bleachers made for a very tight fit for the gridiron. In fact, the corner of the south end zone was literally in the visiting baseball team’s dugout, which was filled with pads for safety, and required a special ground rule that sliced off that corner of the end zone. One corner of the north end line ran just inches small of the left field wall. There is a legend that Bronko Nagurski, the fantastic Bears fullback, steamrolled through the line, head down, and ran all the way through that end zone, smacking his leather-helmeted head on the bricks. He went back to the bench and told Coach “Papa Bear” George Halas, “That last guy gave me quite a lick!” That kind of incident prompted the Bears to hang some padding in front of the wall.
The Bears are second only to the Green Bay Packers in total NFL championships, and all but one of those (their only Super Bowl championship) came during their tenure at Wrigley. After a half-century, they found themselves compelled to go, because the NFL wanted every one of its stadiums to seat at least 50,000. The Bears had one experimental game at Dyche Stadium (now Ryan Field) on the Northwestern University campus, but otherwise continued at Wrigley until their transfer to the lakefront finished their five-decades run on the north side. One remnant of the Bears’ time at Wrigley was uncovered during the off-season 20072008 rebuilding of the playing field: the foundations for the goal posts.
Hockey rink layout
The Chicago Sting of the North American Soccer League (NASL) used Wrigley, along with Comiskey Park, for their home matches during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Sting hosted the San Diego Sockers on August 25, 1979 at Wrigley when the Bears were using Soldier Field. Unlike the Bears’ football gridiron layout, the soccer pitch ran east-to-west, from right field to the foul territory on the third-base side.
On January 1, 2009, the National Hockey League played its 2009 Winter Classic in The Friendly Confines pitting two “Original Six” teams – the host Chicago Blackhawks and the visiting Detroit Red Wings – in an outdoor ice hockey game. The rink ran across the field from first base to third base with second base being covered by roughly the center of the rink. According to espn.com, the attendance for this game was 40,818. The Red Wings won 64.
In recent years Wrigley Field has been opened on a limited basis to well loved concerts, not without some controversy. Artists and groups to play Wrigley Field have included Jimmy Buffett (2005), The Police (2007), Elton John and Billy Joel (2009), and Rascal Flatts (2009). Local neighborhood groups have expressed concerns about the impact of concert crowds and noise on the surrounding residential neighborhood, particularly in 2009 when three concerts were added to the schedule, one conflicting with an annual neighborhood festival.
Traditions and mainstays
Some Wrigley Field advertising in 2007
Wrigley Field shares its name with the Wrigley Company, as the park was named for its then-owner, William Wrigley Jr., the CEO of the Wrigley Company. As early as the 1920s, before the park became officially known as Wrigley Field, the scoreboard was topped by the elf-like “Doublemint Twins”, posed as a pitcher and a batter. There were also ads painted on the bare right field wall early in the ballpark’s history, prior to the 1923 remodeling which place bleachers there. After that, the Doublemint elves were the only visible in-park advertising. The elves were removed permanently in 1937 when the bleachers and scoreboard were rebuilt. It would be about 45 years before in-park advertising would reappear.
Owned by the Tribune Company since 1981, Wrigley Field has been a notable exception to the recent trend of selling corporate naming rights to sporting venues. The Tribune Company chose not to rename the ballpark, utilizing other ways to bring corporate sponsorship into the ballpark.
During the mid-1980s, Anheuser-Busch placed Budweiser and Bud Light advertisements beneath the center field scoreboard. Bud Light became the sponsor of the rebuilt bleachers in 2006.
In the early 2000s, following the trend of many ballparks, a green-screen chroma key board was installed behind home plate, in the line of sight of the center field TV camera, to allow electronic “rotating” advertisements visible only to the TV audiences. By 2006, the board was set-up to allow advertisements to be both physical and electronic (thus they can be seen in both live and replay shots).
In 2007, the first on-field advertising appeared since the park’s early days. Sporting goods firm Under Armour placed its logo on the double-doors between the ivy on the outfield wall, in left-center and right-center fields. Advertisements were also placed in the dugouts, originally for Sears department stores, then Walter E. Smithe furniture and now State Farm insurance.
Corporate sponsorship has not been limited to the park itself. Wrigley Field is well-known for its view of the neighborhood buildings across Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. In addition to spectators standing or sitting on the apartment roofs, corporate sponsors have frequently taken advantage of those locations as well. In the earliest days of Weeghman Park, one building across Sheffield Avenue advertised a local hangout known as Bismarck Gardens (later called the Marigold Gardens after World War I). That same building has since advertised for the Torco Oil Company, Southwest Airlines, and the Miller Brewing Company.
A building across from deep right-center field was topped by a neon sign for Baby Ruth candy beginning in the mid-1930s and running for some 40 years. That placement by the Chicago-based Curtiss Candy Company, coincidentally positioned in the line of sight of “Babe Ruth’s called shot”, proved fortuitous when games started to be televised in the 1940she sign was also in the line of sight of the ground level camera behind and to the left of home plate. The aging sign was eventually removed in the early 1970s.
Another long-standing venue for a sign is the sloping roof of a building behind left-center field. Unsuitable for the bleachers that now decorate many of those buildings, that building’s angling roof has been painted in the form of a large billboard since at least the 1940s. In recent years it has borne a bright-red Budweiser sign and, beginning in 2009, an advertisement for Horseshoe Casino. Other buildings have carried signs sponsoring beers, such as Ancient Style (when it was a Cubs broadcasting sponsor) and Miller; and also WGN-TV, which has telecast Cubs games since April 1948.
For 2008 and 2009, the Cubs worked out an agreement with the Chicago Board Options Exchange to allow the CBOE to auction some 70 box seat season tickets and award naming rights to them.
For the 2009 season, the The Chicago Cubs announced that the renovated restaurant space in the southeast corner of Wrigley Field, formerly known as the Friendly Confines Cafe, will now be known as the Captain Morgan Club.
On October 27, 2009, Thomas S. Ricketts officially took over 95% ownership of the Chicago Cubs, Wrigley Field and 25% ownership of Comcast SportsNet Chicago. The Tribune will retain 5% ownership. Ricketts, but, has expressed no interest in selling the naming rights to Wrigley Field, preferring that it retain the name it has used since 1926.
“White flag time at Wrigley!”
Retired numbers for Ernie Banks and Ron Santo on the left field foulpole and for Billy Williams and Ryne Sandberg on the right field foulpole. Since May 3, 2009, the number 31 also flies on both foul poles, to honor Ferguson Jenkins (left field) and Greg Maddux (right field).
Main article: Cubs Win flag
The term “White flag time at Wrigley!” means the Cubs have won. The ritual of raising flags after a game is decades-ancient, but the saying itself only started in the 1990s, as coined by Chip Caray.
Beginning in the days of P.K. Wrigley and the 1937 bleacher/scoreboard reconstruction, a flag with either a “W” or an “L” has flown from atop the scoreboard masthead, indicating the day’s result. In case of a doubleheader that is split, both flags are flown.
Past Cubs media guides show that the original flags were blue with a white “W” and white with a blue “L”, the latter coincidentally suggesting “surrender”. In 1978, blue and white lights were mounted atop the scoreboard, to further denote wins and losses.
The flags were replaced in the early 1980s, and the color schemes were reversed with the “win flag” being white with a blue W, and the “loss flag” the opposite. In 1982, the retired number of Ernie Banks was flying on a foul pole, as white with blue numbers.
Keeping with tradition, fans are known to bring win flags to home and away games, and showing them after a Cubs win. Flags are also sold at the ballpark. On April 24, 2008 the Cubs flew an extra white flag showing “10,000″ in blue, along with the win flag, as the 10,000th win in team history was achieved on the road the previous night. Along side the tradition of the “W” and “L” flags, the song “Go Cubs Go” is sung after each home win.
References in well loved culture
The iconic sign outside Wrigley Field.
The back of Wrigley Field, with ancient fashioned scoreboard taken during an offseason before the reconstruction of 2005
During pregame warmup the starting pitcher (Chris Young pictured) warms up in the bullpen. A few bullpens are in playable foul territory like those at Wrigley Field.
Wrigley Field had a brief cameo in the movie The Blues Brothers (1980), starring John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd as Jake and Elwood Blues. Elwood listed 1060 W. Addison as his fake home address on his Illinois driver’s license, tricking the police and later the Nazis listening on police radio. The Natural (1984), starring Robert Redford, had a scene set at Wrigley but was really filmed at All-High Stadium in Buffalo, New York. All other baseball action scenes in that movie were shot in Buffalo, at the since-demolished War Memorial Stadium.
During Cubs games, fans will often stand outside the park on Waveland Avenue, waiting for home run balls hit over the wall and out of the park. But, as a tradition, Cubs fans inside and sometimes even outside the park will promptly throw any home run ball hit by an opposing player back onto the field of play, a ritual depicted in the 1977 stage play, Bleacher Bums, and in the 1993 film, Rookie of the Year.
The ballpark was featured in a scene in Ferris Bueller’s Day Off. Many scenes from Rookie of the Year were filmed at Wrigley Field. Later, the film, The Break-Up, would use Wrigley Field as the setting for its opening scene. An early 1990s film about Babe Ruth had the obligatory scene in Wrigley Field about the “called shot” (the ballpark also doubled as Yankee Stadium for the film). A scoreboard similar to the one existing in 1932 was used, atop an ivy wall (though that did not exist until later in the decade).
The ballpark was used for the establishing tryouts scene in A League of Their Own (1992). This film was a Hollywood account of the 1940s women’s baseball league which Cubs owner P.K. Wrigley championed during World War II. Garry Marshall (older brother of the film’s director Penny Marshall) has a cameo as “Walter Harvey,” Wrigley’s fictional alter ego. The sign behind the scoreboard was temporarily redone to read “Harvey Field”, and filming was split between Wrigley and Cantigny Park near Wheaton, IL.
Many television series have made featured scenes set in Wrigley Field, including ER, Crime Tale, Chicago Hope, Prison Break, Perfect Strangers, and My Boys. Also, the animated comedy, Family Guy featured a scene at Wrigley Field, which parodied the Steve Bartman incident. In an episode of The Simpsons entitled “He Likes to Glide and He D’ohs,” upon arriving in Chicago, Homer walks past a number of well-known Chicago landmarks, including Wrigley Field, followed by a generic looking stadium bearing the name “Wherever the White Sox play.” In 2007, the band Nine Inch Nails made a promotional audio skit, which involved Wrigley Field being the target of disgruntled war veteran’s terrorist attack.
The late-1970s comedy stage play, Bleacher Bums, was set in the right field bleachers at Wrigley. The video of the play was also set on a stage, with bleachers suggesting Wrigley’s layout, rather than in the actual ballpark’s bleachers. The tradition of throwing opposition home run balls back was clarified by Dennis Franz’s character: “If someone hands you some garbage, you have to throw it back at them!”
The stadium was also featured on the well loved Travel Channel television show, Fantastic Hotels, starring Samantha Brown. She attended a game during a visit to Chicago.
Chicago folk singer Steve Goodman featured Wrigley Field as the setting for his well loved Cubs lament “A Dying Cub Fan’s Last Request,” extolling both the trials of the Cubs and the place Wrigley Field holds in Cub fans’ hearts. After his untimely death from leukemia, Goodman’s ashes were in fact scattered at Wrigley Field as described in the lyrics.
The Statler Brothers’ 1981 song “Don’t Wait On Me” referred to a then-implausible situation: “When the lights go on at Wrigley Field.” But, after lights were installed, the line was changed to “When they place a dome on Wrigley Field” for their 1989 Live-Sold Out album.
A few brief shots of Wrigley Field appear in the 1949 movie It Happens Every Spring. It is also seen on the History Channel’s show Life After People.
The stadium made a brief appearance in the open for the first episode of The Tonight Show with Conan O’Brien, with Conan rushing through the turnstiles while running from New York (where his previous show, Late Night with Conan O’Brien, was taped) to Los Angeles (where his new show tapes) and then running onto the field while being chased by Cubs security. The route O’Brien takes is somewhat misleading, as he is shown running south on Michigan Avenue past the Tribune Tower before arriving at Wrigley Field, which is well north of the Tribune Tower.
In the movie Category 6: Day of Destruction, a terrorist turns off all the electricity at the stadium for a few minutes to demonstrate how hackers could penetrate city electrical systems.
A panoramic view of Wrigley Field from the upper deck.
Accessibility and transportation
Addison Station at Wrigley Field is served by Red Line trains. This view is now blocked by buildings constructed in 2007.
The Red Line stop at Addison is less than one block east of Wrigley Field. The stadium was originally built for proximity to the train tracks. At the conclusion of games, the scoreboard operator raises to the top of the center field scoreboard either a white flag with a blue “W” to signify a Cubs victory or a blue flag with a white “L” for a loss. This is done not only to allow passengers on the nearby “L” trains to see the outcome of the game, but also anyone passing by the park can now know the results of that day’s game. Fascinatingly, the basic flag color was once the exact opposite of the colors used today (the rationale being that white is the traditional color for surrender). In addition to rail service, the CTA provides several bus routes which service Wrigley. CTA bus routes #22 Clark, #152 Addison and #154 Wrigley Field Express all provide access to the ballpark. Pace also operates the #282 Schaumburg-Wrigley Field Express from Woodfield Mall in Schaumburg and the #779 Yorktown-Wrigley Field Express from Yorktown Shopping Center in Lombard. Biking to the field is also a well loved alternative. As Halsted, Addison, and Clark streets all have designated biking lanes, getting to the field via bicycle is a fantastic way to avoid hectic traffic before and after games. Bikers need not worry about their bike during the game, because Wrigley Field offers a complimentary bike check program. Cyclists may check their bikes up to 2 hours before games at the bike racks off of Waveland Ave, and may pick up their bikes up to one hour after games end.
Parking in the area remains scarce, but that does not seem to bother fans who want to come to this baseball Mecca, which has drawn more than 3 million fans every year since 2004, averaging to a near-sellout every day of the season, even with many weekday afternoon games. The small parking that is available around the park can go for as much as 0 per space. To partially alleviate this problem, the Cubs sponsor a parking shuttle service from the nearby DeVry University campus at Addison and Western as part of their agreement with local neighborhood groups.
In 2001, a series of commemorative postage stamps on the subject of baseball parks was issued by the U.S. Postal Service. Most of them were engravings taken from ancient colorized postcards, including the illustration of Wrigley Field. In the case of Wrigley, the well-known scoreboard was sliced off, presumably to hide the original postcard’s banner containing the park’s name. It may also be observed that the original black-and-white aerial photo, presumably from the 1945 World Series, was taken from nearly the identical spot as the photo of the 1935 Series, allowing a comparison before and after the 1937 alterations to the bleachers. The stamp and its sources also provide a rare look at the center field bleachers filled with spectators, a practice which was later discontinued due to the risk to batters, who might lose the flight of a pitch amidst the white shirts. This led to the development of darker backgrounds to the pitchers mounds.
A Day at the Park, by William Hartel
Ballparks of North America, by Michael Benson
Cubs Journal, by John Snyder
Green Cathedrals, by Philip J. Lowry
Wrigley Field: The Unauthorized Biography, by Stuart Shea
Top 10 Ballparks of 2008 by Devin Pratt
^ Riess, Steven A. (1999). Touching Base: Professional Baseball and American Culture in the Progressive Era (rev ed). p. 120
^ Riess, p. 120
^ Riess, pp. 68-69
^ Solomon, Burt (1997). The Baseball Timeline: The Day-By-Day History of Baseball from Valley Forge to the Present Day. p. 285
^ Riess, p. 121
^ Cross, B. Duane. “The runaround: Sticking with ground game pays off in Week 2″, Sports Illustrated, September 14, 2003. Accessed August 6, 2008. “According to Elias Sports Bureau via Michael Eisen of the G-Men, the Dolphins-Jets game was the 366th NFL regular season game played in Giants Stadium, surpassing Wrigley Field in Chicago as the most frequently used stadium in NFL history (regular season only).”
^ Tierney, Mike (1979-08-22). “Luck writes Rowdies’ playoff script”. St. Petersburg Times. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Sw0OAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UnwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6697,5000664&dq=philadelphia+fury+veterans+stadium. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
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Not too a lot of players favor knock down Martin Johnson and subsequently get a record chance, but if the England boss is in a mood to forgive, a slither to Welford highway this Saturday may possibly be to his advantage. formerly he pens the elementary drawn from a keg of the squad for Australia in the summer, Johnson have got to to glare at Olly Barkley and question whether the Bath centre may possibly one time yet again be share out of the solution to England’s midfield problems.
very last summer, as Barkley had not here Gloucester but was cool down to answer Bath, the 28-year-ancient warped out of order the option of adjunct to his 23 caps. Barkley told Johnson and the England pile into coach Brian Smith to relatively than fun in the two Tests aligned with Argentina he valor be well again being paid his skull consecutive past a drained season. unluckily it was not the top with the intention of warped out to be the problem.
as an alternative Barkley bankrupt a leg in Portugal for the duration of pre-season training, an injury with the intention of took seven months relatively than the projected six weeks to heal, and it was not awaiting Saturday to facilitate Barkley and Bath’s humankind Cup-winning glide partially Butch James done their first start of the time together. They fabricated up the a large amount forceful of wins done Harlequins, which keeps a resurgent Bath working party on pace for the play-offs.
Barkley scored a clean, side-stepping try, helped to scope a new and cool a amount to of 14 points, major his coach, Steve Meehan, to warn to the inside-centre be sum of the 40-strong doing a tour party.
“He’s not in his primary yet, but by now the end of the mark absolutely balk to see that,” understood Meehan. “He has a right chance, a exceptionally well-hidden unintentional of assembly with the aim of trip.”
Meehan was what’s more delighted among the Barkley-James circle and in obtain the way it set up Joe Maddock’s try unreserved on the frank after a lineout on the left: “That’s perfectly a brilliant bit of rugby. If everyone scores a go ahead try than so as to this weekend, it willpower grasp to be an total screamer. It’s practically two seasons since they played together. They looked attractive commendable as a combination.”
Meehan capacity moreover be inflicted with mentioned the understanding to facilitate has industrial connecting Barkley and Shontayne Hape, the convincing outside-centre Johnson would buy played in the Six Nations versus Italy but for illness. “He has a exceedingly inflexible lasting pass, Olly, and fussy charge so he can get exterior defenders and abandon out of attackers certainly nicely.”
absolutely discretely on or after likes of Barkley and Hape on the Bath area and Toby Flood and Ben Youngs in addition to Leicester, Johnson may additionally similar to to see how the up to date escalate periphery in the Premiership gets on in opposition to the defending champions.
given that they were two points off the ground at the shock of December, Bath comprise won seven out of seven in the league. Saturday’s three-tries-to-one victory was as thorough as it was attractive, the barely listed headland thinker to Bath come what may abortive to pick of the litter up a try bonus point.
“If we had nailed to facilitate routine in October we would show off been liability laps of honour,” believed Meehan. “To identify with the players say we ought to obtain been harder on ourselves and must get scored so as to fourth try is a exceptionally well-mannered spot to be in.”
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How The Grinch Stole Christmas has quietly emerged as the classic Christmas tale of the 21th century. While the work has always been a success among children, it has recently been recognized for its brilliance and its appeal in today’s world.
The New Christmas Carol
Before How the Grinch Stole Christmas hit the scene huge time, it was the classic Dickens tale, A Christmas Carol that many people referred to as a tale to suit the season. Today but, times have changed somewhat. While it is still a well-loved tale, the time has certainly come for a different tale to rule the roost. That place has been occupied by the tale about a Grinch.
How The Grinch Stole Christmas is seen by many people as a masterpiece, written by stellar children’s writer Dr. Seuss. In today’s age of playstations, the internet and computerized special effects, it speaks volumes that Seuss’ work still tops the charts in terms of well loved children’s books. In fact, many of them have become icons of well loved culture. His tales deal with very contemporary issues, but they are done in the whimsical world of rhyming verse, peopled with cities that live on specks of dust and cats that wear hats.
In this particular tale, Seuss talks about the spirit of the holiday season and Christmas in particular. How The Grinch Stole Christmas speaks about a nasty ancient Grinch, who lives in a cave and has nothing but contempt for the people of the town of Whoville. While it is right that the Grinch suffers from a heart that is simply too small, it’s hard to find an excuse for the things he does to try and stop Christmas from coming to Whoville. He steals all of their presents under the cover of night, picturing them all waking in the morning to see that there is no Christmas. But when the Grinch hears them all singing on Christmas day, he realizes that the holiday season has nothing to do with presents and everything to do with like. They say that, on that very day, the Grinch’s heart grew and that is why he returned all the things he had stolen.
A Dog’s Point Of View
How The Grinch Stole Christmas was not only a huge hit in Hollywood, it has also been a success on Broadway, appearing as a special musical production. The show is narrated by the Grinch’s dog and follows him, as he tries to steal Christmas from the Whos. The show is generously sprinkled with a number of songs, with three new ones slated to appear for the current Broadway season. Given the popularity of this play last year, the show is scheduled to run for 15 shows a week, right through the Christmas season.
If you’re looking for a special show that everyone in your family can delight in, you can’t go incorrect with this musical. In fact, you may even have to wait in line for tickets. You can always skip to the front of the lines, by ordering your tickets over the internet. Just find an authorized online ticket vendor and order your passes for How the Grinch Stole Christmas.
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Foiling the Grinch One Woman
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Foiling the Grinch
Pros and Cons in Subletting, Designation, Assignment, Nomination and Novation in Construction Contracts
Sub letting reduces dependency on directly employed labour. It results non-wage cost of employment such as redundancy payment and offsets the risk associated with the responsibility by transferring them. Sub letting is necessary when to use specialists of proven reliability and repute to face technical complexity involved in a project. There are two distinctly different modes of sub letting that everyone is known to; domestic and nominated.
The domestic subcontract is a direct contract between a sub-contractor and the main contractor where the sub contractors are treated as an internal composition of the main contractor for the purpose of responsibility. This is a form of letting sub-contracts whilst giving the employer some choice where the main contractor is given a list of names of sub-contract companies to whom he may go for that package of works. Usually, the employer may reasonably expect the contractor to progress the work on a domestic sub contract basis with one of the sub contractors place forward by the main contractor. The contractor should be allowed to entertain the benefit of any pre-agreed rates and prices in their domestic sub contract without justifiable objection.
But, the contractor shall not sub-let whole of the works. The
The Washington Redskins brought back a familiar name and dusted off a long-unused title Thursday in a major front-office shake-up, the first of many anticipated changes resulting from a losing season.
Bruce Allen, son of late Redskins Hall of Fame coach George Allen, is the team
The Sad Fate of the Male of the Species
Image by Boogies with Fish
As soon as we arrived up at the house at Blueblood on Sunday, my sharp-eyed mate, Mike Cassell told me of an impending natural event that I would not want to miss. He guided me to the front of the house where a large female spider had built her web. A small male on the make was cautiously walking around her. We watched him circle the female several times. The tension in the air was intense.
Well, we all know how this is going to end, don’t we? All except the poor male spider. This takes me back to high-school. I was that most unusual combination of a slightly geeky guy with a truly boss set of wheels. This confused the girls. I was called "cute" which is the last word a guy wants to hear in a verbal description of him. Oh, how they loved the car, an Austin Heally. Many a cruise finished with, "Thanks for the ride. You’re cute." Grrrrrrr . . . And no phone number.
My problems were a picnic compared the the nasty surprise that this small guy has in store.
Sadly, nobody has told him that this is a very poor pick-up line for a male spider to use. The problem is that it implies dinner and there is only one item on the menu.
About this time I blew the lunch trumpet. Really. We have an ancient bugle there at the house.
During lunch we discussed matters of more import, specifically, how to get Eunie out of the country as quickly as possible down to Cairns for a thorough medical exam. I have chose, after much internal debate, that I’m going to go with her. We’re not expecting anything dramatic. It looks for the moment that the worst outcome might be to stick in one of those small clipper-snipper things through a hole the size of your pinkie and yank out her gall bladder. She is looking pretty yellow. Up until this morning I was still thinking that I would just be in the way and it costs a bundle and who’s going to take care of things here at the office and blah, blah, blah, one "reason" after the other to act "responsibly".
Then, this morning, I got my head screwed on straight. Where do you belong when your spouse is sick? Duh! I’m going to Cairns. Everything else can take care of itself. Hey, if I dropped dead in my chair right now, the world would go on, eh? (At least I reckon it would, but that gets into a philosophical discussion for which I’m not prepared at the moment. Maybe later. It will be fun.)
Anyway, let’s get back to the drama of the spider and her unfortunate lover. (That would make a excellent title for a novel – The Unfortunate Lover.) *
Clicking on this will reveal a quite graphic view of the lady spider devouring her former mate.
Well, if I had the time today, I could do a few paragraphs of allegorical humor and anecdotal musings connecting this to the existential value of maleness. I mean, really, how many of us do you need? How huge do we need to be? Do we require brains at all? Should anyone care a whit what we reckon? Much of nature zips along quite nicely with none of the mess of males casting about for means to perpetuate their macho selves and fouling the air with testosterone fumes.
Food for another post.
There is a terrific potential bonfire stacked up on the beach. This spot attracts a lot of driftwood. We will probably start dragging it up on higher ground soon so that it can be well dried so that we can have have a huge fire at Christmas time. For a small stress relief, I chose to take a couple of pictures:
An fascinating thing in this shot is the green sand. The sand itself is not really green. It is covered by a thin film of algae.
As a tip of the hat to the possible discovery of US0,000,000 worth of Ansel Adams glass plate negatives (which I can’t wait to see!) I chose to do another shot in monochrome.
I reckon that I like it better.
*nbsp; There is a poem by Andrew Marvel bearing that title. After a couple of read-throughs, I chose that I didn’t know a single word. I did a small checking on the web. I don’t feel so terrible now, because it seems that nobody else understands it either. I’m feeling much better about my own poems now.
Bear Gall Bladder Uses Well loved Search Term But Illegal Activity
Bear Gall Bladder uses is being searched widely on the internet giving the impression that many are curious about the use of this organ. But, trafficking or killing the animals for organ parts is illegal and should be discouarged. The bear gall bladder has been used typically in ancient Chinese medicine. The bile stored in the bladder is said to cure several ailm
Read more on ThirdAge
Poaching of bear gallbladders used in traditional medicine increases
Bear gall bladder uses are mostly medical but what gall to abuse bears for their bladders
Read more on Los Angeles Times
Playing Chess With the Devil: Making Sense of the Most Popular Book In the World. Genesis 12-22. The Covenant With Abraham. Lesson 7
The Importance of Abraham
You are now approaching one of the most vital sections of Scripture there is as far as interpretation of the Bible is concerned. Genesis 12-22 is absolutely key for understanding much of the rest of the Bible. Romans, Galatians, and parts of Hebrews are directly linked to these chapters. Without some kind of knowledge of Genesis – and Abraham in particular – much of the Bible is not going to make any sense. Furthermore, Genesis 12-22 presents the first major fork in the road for Biblical interpretation that will determine many things for a believer from this point on. It will sway one on which group of Christians he is likely to associate with, what churches he is likely to attend, what denominations he will likely join, and all kinds of emphases that will attract his attention, such as prophecy and his view on the nation of Israel, for example. In addition, one of the most dramatic periods of revelation in the history of redemption was about to start. In the next 200 years, the Lord gave a ton of information about Eve’s Avenger and His identity.
Christ Primary in Genesis 12-22
After His resurrection In Luke 24:13-27, Jesus appeared on the road to Emmaus and walked unrecognized with His disciples who were discussing all the events that had happened primarily in the previous week. Jesus questioned them what they were talking about, and they were astounded that He had not heard about these events. When he questioned them “What things?”, they told Him about the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, his crucifixion, the disappearance of His body and the reported appearance of angels at his tomb that very morning.
Ace Hardware Corp franchisee is a grand proposition for all who want to run independent business. This Hardware Corporation is a mammoth with a presence in several countries worldwide with over 4800 places of dealing. In United States, Ace Hardware Corp is operating in all the states. It is an astonishing fact that company’s supercenter warehouse opened in 1993 occupies more than 1 million sq, ft floor space. Much of the driving force in development in hardware and tooling industry is the result of the popularity of DIY concept.
The tools and products sold by Ace hardware are in the range of hand tools, power tools, garden equipments, plumbing and electrical supplies. The offer for franchisee is unique with company’s open support to the qualifying financial package up to 5,000. The company has a well established franchisee practice, which is in existence since 1976. The opportunity is quite liberal to own even multipoint Ace hardware stores.
The Power Behind Ace Hardware Franchise
The Company held ranks in franchisee ratings conducted by different professional market research organizations. The most credible was
On the fantastic day of 10 Feb (Bloomberg) — Brothers Mike Hussey and David each hit half-centuries and Australia also managed to beat New Zealand by margin of six wickets in order to tie their one-day cricket series where they had one more game to play.
In this match, David was declared top scorer batsmen with 79 runs while another player Mike remained unbeaten with 247-4 in Adelaide having excellent follow up against New Zealand with 244-8. Australia aimed to play well this series as they had intention to avoid the second home loss after getting down from South Africa with 4-1 loss where South Africa had rallied behind from 2-0 in the previous series.
It is also an fascinating fact that New Zealand had never won any ODI series in Australia. The final results will be clearly prescribed the positions of both teams after the game hold on Feb 13 in Brisbane. These teams will also confront each other later in Sydney two days later of 13 Feb match in Twenty 20 international. Australia had avoided handing back the trophy of Chapell-Hadlee in the city Sydney while New Zealand win in Adelaide would be quite enough to win the prize to change hands while Australia could try to level the series with 2-2. It is really a fantastic opportunity to cricket fans to catch fantastic cricket livescore ball by ball.
At the Australian squad Pacer Peter Siddle was added for the remaining two matches against kiwis while David Warner and Ryan Harris were in resting mode. Peter Siddle had announced the National panel selection into the Australian squad for the coming two matches against New Zealand. David Warner and Ryan Harris both ruled out from the squad of Australia. But they will return back soon to state duties. 24 years ancient player Siddle had not still made one day international debut in which Australia got trailed of five match